|Varied landscape-forming processes significantly characterized the fauna in the northeast of Brandenburg during the last ice age as well as type and degree of land use. The richly structured landscape with ground and terminal moraines, outwash plains and glacial valleys offers an impressive wealth of habitats with corresponding effects on wildlife.
The Schorfheide became famous because of its abundance of wildlife. From an animal ecological perspective it is important that these forests are huge and few cut through by roads and settlements. Especially if wetlands and waters are present in the forests, species such as fish, sea and lesser-spotted eagles, cranes and black storks can appear. This high density of endangered species of large birds is one of the greatest treasures of Germany and a major reason for the designation as a European bird sanctuary. The osprey for example exists in the area of the Uckermärkische Seen (Lakes of the Uckermark) in a for the whole Europe unique number.
open landscape habitats
The ground moraine areas are in contrast to the terminal moraines and outwash plains in most instances woodless. In the complex structured agricultural plains exist for example quails, whinchats, corn buntings and yellowhammers, red-backed shrikes, great grey shrikes and hares.
lakes, kettle lakes and fens habitats
For the young landscape in the northeast of Brandenburg lakes, countless small bodies of water and especially fens are very characteristic. Large basin lakes and deep groove lakes, nutrient-poor kettle bogs and kettle lakes accommodate a range of species such as beavers, otters, grebes, herons, rails, various ducks, wading birds, warblers and several species of amphibians and fish plus an uncounted variety of invertebrates and other species.
streaming waters habitats
Due to the, for Northern Germany unusual, differences in height one finds a number of fast-flowing brooks. Some species exist here in an increased number, that one can find normally in the Central German Uplands, like grey wagtails, brown trouts and Alpine flatworms.
The partially large-area moored hollows and basin landscapes are mainly used as grassland. But it remained interesting and speciose meadows and willows in many places.
flood plain habitats
The lowlands of the Untere Oder (Lower River Oder) play an important role for bird conservation. Here you will find for example Germany's largest appearance of the corncrake and the aquatic warbler. Besides the importance of the River Oder with its bordering meadows for numerous breeding bird species, its significance for bird migration was crucial for its promotion as only National Park in the state of Brandenburg so far.
dry locations habitats
Of low surface area but more significant for the wildlife is the concentration of hot, dry locations in the eastern part of the area. These are the habitats of many insect species. Many of these species have their northernmost habitats in Europe here. Thermophilic insect and spider species but also woodlarks and nightjars live here.